Samuel Thomas 1842 - 1915

Army Records of Samuel Thomas 1860 -1889

Release papers from 3rd. Staffs. Militia, 1860
Enlistment papers for 22nd. Regt. Foot, 1860
Recruit attestation document, 1860
Military history sheet, 1889
Medical record page One
Medical record page Two
Service record page One
Service record page Two - Discharge Paper, 1889

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This chapter began as research about Samuel Thomas born 1842 and died 1915.  Although his military record was discovered and researched at the National Archives, Kew in the early days of the research, for several years his birth was confused with another person, same name, born same year in the same village.  Later, it was discovered he was born illegitimate and initially was known as Samuel Mellor.

Since those early days of research, his parentage and grandparents have become known and hence have been included at the beginning of this chapter.  In due course, it is hoped to do more research prior to 1800.

1818 Newport. Shropshire.
Joseph Thomas married Sarah Higginbottom on the 22 January 1818 at the Parish Church of Newport, Shropshire.
As at mid July 2009, I have no further details of this marriage and more research at the Shropshire County Record Office is required.
There is evidence from Census records that Sarah Higginbottom was born c.1786 at Newport, Shropshire.  Furthermore that her brother John Higginbottom was stated on the 1851 census to have been born in Ireland.

To date, three children have been traced to this marriage namely:
1.  James Thomas born 15 December 1822 at Newport, Shropshire.
2.  Francis Thomas born 15 July 1823 at Longton St. John's, Staffordshire.
3.  Elizabeth Thomas born 31 December 1826 at Lane End, Longton - (St. James). (could be St. John's.)
These details require rechecking - I cannot remember from where I got these dates.

1823 15 July  Lane End, Longton. Staffordshire.
Francis Thomas was born the son of Joseph Thomas and his wife SarahJoseph Thomas was stated to be a Victualler in the parish register.
1834 Staffordshire Trade Directory - White's History Gazeteer & Directory - Page 578.
Fenton Township
Jph. (Joseph - my word) Thomas appears as a name under the Maltster section, also
Jph. (Joseph - my word) Thomas - 'Cock', Fenton appears in the "Inns and Taverns" section.
We now know that our Joseph Thomas was both a maltster and that he was licensee of the Cock Inn/Tavern.
1835 Staffordshire Trade Directory - Pigot's - Page 434.  Fenton Township
Joseph Thomas - 'Cock', Foley appears in the "Taverns and Public Houses" section.
183818 December.  Fenton in the parish of Stoke upon Trent, Staffs.
Joseph Thomas - died aged 48 years.  The cause of death was stated to be Dropsey (sic).  His son Francis Thomas registered the death on the 19 December 1838 and told the Registrar, Richard Cordon, that he was present at the death at Foley Fenton.
GRO Ref. 4th. Qtr. of 1838.  Vol.XV11.(17)  Page 97.  Ent.no. 175.  Sub District Stoke on Trent.

Dropsy: An old term for the swelling of soft tissues due to the accumulation of excess water.
In years gone by, a person might have been said to have dropsy.  Today one would be more descriptive and specify the cause.  Thus, the person might have edema due to congestive heart failure.  Edema is often more prominent in the lower legs and feet toward the end of the day as a result of pooling of fluid from the upright position usually maintained during the day.  Upon awakening from sleeping, people can have swelling around the eyes referred to as periorbital edema.

1841Thursday, 1 April.  Hanley.
On Monday, 29 March, at Hanley Court, William Powell and Francis Thomas were fined
10 shillings each and 23 shillings costs for an assault on Williaim and Richard Cartledge at Normicott, on Sunday last.
184112 June. King Street, Foley, Fenton Culvert Staffordshire.
The 1841 Census - Ref: HO.107  Piece 990  Book 5/48  page 16 reveals:
Sarah Thomas, aged 55 years, an Inn Keeper, 'N' - not born in Staffs living at King Street, Foley, Fenton Culvert.
Name of Street
Road, no.of house
Name & Surname
at 12 June 1841
Age M/F Occupation Born in Staffs.
King Street, Foley Sarah Thomas 55 M Inn Keeper N
King Street, Foley James Thomas 20 M -- N
King Street, Foley Francis Thomas 15 M -- Y
King Street, Foley Elizabeth Thomas 10 F -- Y
This is our family, but father Joseph Thomas had died.  Evidence from Trade Directories show that Sarah Thomas was the Licensee of the Cock Inn, having taken over from her husband.

Also living with this family were William Jones aged 50, Mary Jones aged 45, Mary Jones aged 15, William Jones
aged 10, Daniel Slater aged 20, Francis Howell aged 20 and Hannah Derricott aged 20, Harriett Lovatt aged 20 a F/S,
Mary Jenkinson aged 15 a F/S and Frederick Mayer (?) aged 5 years.

On the 1841 census, adult ages are rounded down by 5 years, hence 15 to 19 became 15, 20 to 24 became 20 etc.

1841 12 June.  Lane End, Longton. Staffordshire.
Census Ref: HO.107.  Piece 991, Book 5. Folio 40, page 30. Regn. District Stoke on Trent.  Sub-dist. Lane End.
The census reveals James Mellor aged 40/41 years a Pot seller and his family living at Lane End, Longton near Stoke on Trent.
Name of Street
Road, no.of house
Name & Surname
at ?? 1841
Age M/F Occupation Born in Staffs.
Furness Road James Mellor 40 M Pot Seller Y
Furness Road Elizabeth Mellor 40 F - - Y
Furness Road Rachel Mellor 15 F - - Y
Furness Road Fanny Mellor 15 F - - Y
Furness Road Emma Mellor 5 M - - Y
Furness Road William Mellor 2 M - - Y
1842 31 May.  Lane End.
Rachel Mellor gave birth to a baby boy whom she named Samuel.  I conject the baby was named Samuel Mellor.
She registered the birth on the 15 June 1842.  At that time she told the Registrar Mr. Goddard that the father was Francis Thomas, a plumber and glazier and confirmed the birth date and location.  She could not write and made her mark.  She stated she lived at Locketts Place, Lane End in the Regn. district Stoke on Trent.
1842 Staffordshire Trade Directory - Pigot's - Page 51.  Fenton Township
Sarah Thomas - 'Cock of the Foley', Foley, Longton appears in the "Taverns and Public Houses" section.
The wording is as per the said entry.
Note: Her husband Joseph Thomas had died in 1838 and she had taken over as the licensee.
1842 Stafford Prison.
TNA No. Ref.??
No. 970.  Francis Thomas.  Received 24 August 1842.  Aged 19 years. Plumber. Fenton.
Charge - Manslaughter - 1 month labour.  Discharged 10 April 1843. R. W. Well. (Read, Write - well).
Records "On Bail" Committed by J. Catlow, Gent. Spring Assizes 11th. March 1843. 1 months hard labour. Behaviour Orderly.
1843 8 February.  Fenton. Longton, Staffs.
Sarah Thomas died aged 61 years, the widow of Joseph Thomas, Licensed Victualler.  The cause of death was stated to be Phthisis (sic).  Her death was registered on the 11 February 1843 by Sidonia Powell of Park Street, Fenton, who made her mark and told the Registrar Richard Cordon that she had been present at the death.
GRO Ref. Vol.17.  Page 120.  Ent. no. 248. Sub District Stoke on Trent.
Phthisis is tuberculosis of lungs.  Sarah Thomas was the mother of Francis Thomas and grandmother of Samuel Thomas.
1843 11 March 1843.  Staffordshire Spring Assizes.  6th. Vict.1843.
TNA Kew Ref. ASSI/5/163/17.
Calendar of Prisoners Tried before the Right Honourable Thomas Erskine, one of the Judges of Her Majestys Court of Common Pleas and The Hon. Sir William Wightman, Knight one of Her Majestys Judges of the Queens Bench Division assigned to hold Pleas before the Queen herself and William Whateley, Esq. and Richard Godson, Esq. Her Majestys Counsel.
List of prisoners:
17.  Francis Thomas.  19 years.  R.W. Well.     18.  James Sutton.      27 years.  R. Imp.
19.  Thomas Yates.       21 years.  R. Imp.           20.  Richard Deakin.  22 years.  R.W.Imp.
Indictment.  Killing and Slaying John Perkin on the 15 August 1842 at the parish of Caverswall.
The 4 accused appeared at the Assize Court on the 24th. and 30th. August 1842 then on the 15 February 1843.  J. Catlow, Coroner.
Before William Whateley, Esq. 2C in the Grand Jury Room, Stafford, Thursday 16 March 1842 (at ??) a small entry made something like 1/2/? indicating a time - half past ?.
Jury members.  Charles Berry, Edward Doughty, Joseph Hill, Theodore Jennens, Richard Greesill, Abraham K. Holmes, Jesse (?) Johnson, John Rider, Richard Wilkinson and John Walbank all sworn. The names are bracketed in pairs and letters 'SW'written.  (sworn - my word)

John Walker:  The verdict states "Confesses - For the manslaughter of John Pirkin.  "To be imprisoned and kept in hard labour in the House of Correction for two calendar months"

James Sutton.  Thomas Yates.  Francis Thomas.  Bracketed it states "for Aiding, Abetting - To be imprisoned and kept in hard labour in the House of Correction for one calendar month"  Richard Deakin is also bracketed with these latter four named but against him it states "po se Guilty - To be imprisoned and kept in hard labour in the House of Correction for six weeks"  Note:  po se is Latin Abbrev. for ponit se super patriam which translated to P Outs himself on the country, i.e. opts for jury trial and pleads not guilty.

An article in the Staffordshire Mercury dated 20 March 1843 reports:
Manslaughter at Caverswall. - John Walker, pleaded guilty to the charge of killing and slaying John Perkin, on the 15th. August, at the parish of Caverswall, and James Sutton, Thomas Yates, Francis Thomas and Richard Deakin, for aiding and abetting at a prize fight, at which the deceased met his death.  Before passing sentence on the prisoners, Mr Dawes, surgeon, of Longton, who had examined into the cause of the deceased's death, wished to make an observation to his Lordship – the learned Judge inquired if it was relative to the cause of death of the deceased: viz.,that the deceased's death might have ensued from a state of exhaustion to which he was reduced.  Mr. Dawes said it was – The learned Judge said he had read the deposition in the case and found the fact there stated, but that would be no justification for the conduct of the prisoners, for had it not been for their engaging in an unlawful act, the deceased would not have been reduced to that state of exhaustion that might have caused the death.  In passing sentence upon the prisoners, his Lordship said he had taken into consideration the circumstances that the deceased was the challenger, and Walker had agreed to fight the deceased, on a future day. - Walker was then sentenced to be imprisoned for hard labour for two months, and the other prisoners for one month.

1843 March 1843.  Staffordshire Spring Assizes.  6th. Vict.1843.
TNA Kew Ref. ASSI/ 2 / 33. Staffordshire Assizes Lent 6th. Victoria 1843.
Recognizances to answer. Original set out in columns. Disch. 2. Francis Thomas £50. John Higginbottom. Disch. It states Thos. Edison (then something like) Ches. way? £25 any Indictment.
So John Higginbottom, uncle of Francis Thomas and Licensee of The 'Cock' at Foley, Longton had stood bail.
1848 4 April.  April Quarter Sessions, Staffordshire.
Calendar of Prisoners tried before Francis Tremlowe, Esq. Chairman, Henry Hill, Esq. Asistant Chairman and the Honourable Frederick Gough, High Sherriff.
Francis Thomas aged 25 years, no.13 appeared at these Quarter Sessions along with an Aaron Hand, aged 21 years no.14 and Francis Mould aged 20 years no.15, charged with Warehousebreaking.  This was a Felony
The indictment read:
Breaking into the warehouse of Messrs. Bradbury & Co. at Longton and stealing Twenty pounds weight of colour, one jar, one jacket and other articles, their property.  No value was put on the stolen property.
Each of them was sentenced as follows:  To be severally imprisoned and kept to hard labour for six calendar months.  The amount of expenses incurred in this prosecution was £25..13s..4d.
They had been committed to this Quarter Session on the 23 March 1848 by T.B.Rose, Esq.
Francis Thomas was recorded as R.W.Imp. meaning Read, Write, imperfectly whereas Hand and Mould were both R.W.Well.

The Staffordshire Advertiser, dated Saturday, 8th. April 1848, page 8, column 4 records:  Before H. Hill, Esq. Asst Chairman.

The Robbery of Manufactories at Longton.
Francis Thomas, Aaron Hand and Francis Mould were indicted with breaking into the warehouse of Messrs. Bradbury & Co. at Longton, on the 14th. March and stealing 10 lbs. Weight of potters' colour and one jar, their property; also stealing one jacket, the property of Jonathan Brummer, at Longton.
The facts of the case as given in evidence were as follows:  On Tuesday, the 14th. day of March last, the manufactory of the prosecutors was locked up, as usual, at six o'clock at night.  When the workmen returned about seven o'clock the next morning it was found that the premises had been broken open, and on examination, some potters gold and various other articles were missing.  A Jacket belonging to Mr. Brummer, in which were two books, was also taken away.  The gold had been scraped of one of the tiles in the painting shop. The prisoner Mould was a china painter, and it was stated it required a little practice to clear a tile well of the gold.  On the same night, a little before one o'clock the manufactory of Mr. Deakin was attempted to be broken open, but the parties were heard, and three men were seen to run away.  A policeman of the name of Cox, was on duty that same night about a quarter past one, near to Mr. Bradburys premises, and in the direction of Mr. Deakin's, heard a noise, and went into a yard, in the occupation of a person named Ward.  He heard footsteps, but saw no one, but on going into the privy, he found the prisoner Thomas, with his back to the ...-..... Thomas escaped from him, but he recaptured him in five or ten minutes.
On searching him, he found the articles named in the indictment in his possession, which were identified as the property of Messrs. Bradbury and Co.; the jacket was identified by Mr. Brummer as his property.
Mr. Kettle, on the part of the prosecution, wished to put in a statement which the prisoner Thomas had made in the presence of the other prisoners; but Mr. Metsyard objected, on the ground that Thomas, having pleaded guilty, the statement (which was a mere affirmative and negative to questions put to him), could not be put in evidence against the other prisoners.  The Chairman, having decided that the statement could not be put in, Mr. Kettle ..... he should avail himself of the sopportunity afforded him of putting the prisoner Thomas in the witness box. This being allowed, Thomas was placed in the witness box; and the Chairman cautioned him against making any statement under the impression that he would be benefitted; for whatever he might say with respect to others, he having pleaded guilty, it would make no difference in his punishment.  Thomas then went into detail of the transaction, in the course of which, he stated that he, in company with the two prisoners at the bar, committed the robbery on the premises of the prosecutor.  In cross-examination he stated he had been in gaol three times before; once for manslaughter and twice for assaults.  Two or three witnesses gave evidence to the effect that they had seen the prisoners in company at various times that night.
For the defence, Mr. Metsyard called seven witnesses to prove an alibi. Elizabeth Mould (sister of the prisoner Mould) and Miss Olliphant, gave evidence to the efect that, on the night of the robbery, they went at about half past eleven o'clock at night in search of the prisoner Mould, and found him in company with the prisoner Hand, at the Eagle public-house, and that the two prisoners accompanied them to Mould's house: that the prisoner Hand afterwards went in the direction of his own home, and Mould went to bed, a little before one o'clock. The mother and brother of Hand stated that he arrived at home a little before one o'clock, and immediately went to bed.  Joseph Wadham, Joseph Wilkinson, and George Smith, stated they saw the prisoners in company with the two females, each agreeing minutely as to the time of night, and with that named by Miss Mould and Miss Olliphant.
The jury returned a verdict of guilty; and the Chairman sentenced the three prisoners to be imprisoned six calendar months, with hard labour.   This being the last case, the sessions terminated at half-past twelve o'clock at noon.
1851 March.  January Adjourned Quarter Sessions, Staffordshire.
Calendar of Prisoners tried before Francis Tremlowe, Esq. Chairman, Henry Hill, Esq. Asistant Chairman and the Honourable Frederick Gough, High Sherriff.
Francis Thomas aged 27 years, no.136 on the Calendar, appeared at these Quarter Sessions Indicted with Steaaling a spade, the property of Samuel Hill at Longton; after a previous convistion for Felony.  No value was put on the stolen property.  The amount of expenses incurred in this prosecution was £4..3s..4d.
He had been committed to this Quarter Session on the 5 March 1851 by T.B.Rose, Esq.
Francis Thomas was recorded as R.W.Imp. meaning Read, Write, imperfectly.
Amt. of expenses
incurred in this
prosection
No. on
Calendar
Name of Prisoner Age Condition
Read, Write, Imp.
Indictment Sentence
£4..3s..4d 136 Francis Thomas 27 R.W.Imp. Felony
Wording as above
To be Transported
for seven years.
The Staffordshire Advertiser dated Saturday, March 15th. 1851 records:
Saturday, 8th. March 1851, before F.T wemlow, Esq. Chairman
Francis Thomas pleaded guilty to stealing a spade, the property of Thomas Hill at Longton.  The learned Chairman told the prisoner that he was very sorry to say that he had a very bad character, he having been seven times previously convicted; it was necessary, therefore, he should be removed out of the country, to be transported for seven years.
1851 30 March.  Heaths Passage. Lane End.
The census reveals that Rachel Mellor.  Head.  Unmarried.  aged 27 years, born Longton, Staffs.  Living with her was her son Samuel Mellor, aged 9 years and daughter Elizabeth, aged 6 months.  Both were stated to be born at Longton.

Lodging with them was a family named Simcox.  Initially the Enumerator had recorded Rachel Simcox but corrected it to Mellor.

Francis Thomas appears on this (1851) census as a prisoner in Stafford Gaol.  He told the Enumerator that he was single, aged 27 years, a collier and that he was born in Longton, Staffordshire.  Ref: HO107/1999, page 397. This is more proof that he was born in 1824 in Longton.

Name of Street
Road, no.of house
Name & Surname
at 30 March 1851
Relation to
Head Family
Condition Age M/F Occupation Where Born
Heaths Passage.
Lane End
Rachel Mellor Head Unmarr. 27 F - Longton, Staffs.
- - Samuel Mellor Son Unmarr. 9 years M - Longton, Staffs.
- - Elizabeth Mellor Dau. Unmarr. 6 months F - Longton, Staffs.
1851 Staffordshire Trade Directory - White's History Gazeteer & Directory - Page ??.  Fenton Township
John Higginbottom - 'Cock', Foley, Longton appears in the "Taverns and Public Houses" section and states 'Auctioneer'.
Note: Sarah Thomas had died in 1843 and Higginbottom had taken over as the licensee.
The late Sarah Thomas formerly Higginbottom was the sister of John Higginbottom.
1851 Staffordshire Trade Directory - Pigot's - Page ??.  Longton and Lane End
James Thomas - George and Dragon, George Street appears in the "Taverns and Public Houses" section.
Note: We believe but not yet proven (January 2008) that James Thomas was the brother of Francis Thomas.
1851 30 March.  King Street, Fenton Culvert, Stoke on Trent.
The census reveals that John Higginbottom and his family were living at the Cock Inn.
Ref: HO.107. Piece 2006.
Francis Thomas, James and Elizabeth Thomas were brothers and sister.  Their mother Sarah Thomas formerly Higginbottom was the sister of John Higginbottom.
Name of Street
Road, no.of house
Name & Surname
at 30 March 1851
Relation
to Head
of Family
Condition Age M
F
Occupation Where Born
12 King Street
Fenton Culvert
John Higginbottom Head Marr. 44 M Surveyor, Auctioneer
Inn Keeper
Ireland
12 King Street Elizabeth Higginbottom Wife Marr. 47 F -- Newport, Salop
12 King Street Joseph Higginbottom Son Unmarr. 15 M Scholar Longton, Staffs.
12 King Street Elizabeth Higginbottom Dau. Unmarr. 13 F Scholar Longton, Staffs.
12 King Street Francis Higginbottom Son Unmarr. 11 M Scholar Longton, Staffs.
12 King Street Henry J Higginbottom Son Unmarr. 10 M Scholar Longton, Staffs.
12 King Street Elizabeth Thomas Sister
in law
Unmarr. 24 F Assistant
in family
Fenton, Staffs.
12 King Street Catherine Brotherhood Servant Unmarr. 30 F House servant Atherstone, Warwick
12 King Street James Thomas Brother
in law
Unmarr. 31 M Visitor Newport, Salop
1854 20 August.  Fulford Chapel, Stone.  Staffordshire
Francis Thomas aged 31 years, a bachelor and a miner living at Spring Bank, father Joseph Thomas, a publican married Rachell Mellor, aged 31 years, a spinster living at Spring Bank, father James Mellor, a potter.  Both bride and groom made their marks as did a witness Emma Mellor.  Other witnesses Fredk. Daykin and Edwd. Baker signed their names.

Release papers from 3rd. Staffs. Militia, 1860


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Enlistment papers for 22nd. Regt. Foot, 1860


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Recruit attestation document, 1860


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Military history sheet, 1889


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Medical record page One


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Medical record page Two


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Service record page One


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Service record page Two - Discharge Paper, 1889


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1858 7 April.  Staffordshire Quarter Sessions
Francis Thomas, aged 35 years, a Collier appeared before Henry Hill, Esq. and pleaded Guilty to breaking into a Counting House and larceny therein after a previous conviction.  He stole one Fifty pound note, two half five pound notes and one cheque the property of Henry Shepherd at Longton. He had been arrested on the 31 March 1858.
He was sentenced to 6 years penal servitude.

Appearing with Francis Thomas was William Henry Brown, aged 60 years, a Cooper, Imp. who appeared before Henry Hill, Esq. of Tettenhall Wood, Wolverhampton, Indicted for Receiving One fifty pound Bank of England note, the property of Henry Shepherd at Longton, he well knowing the same to have been stolen.  Brown was acquitted of receiving stolen money.  No.9 on calendar.
A warrant had been issued for Brown on the 30 March 1858 and he was received into custody 31 March 1858.  Francis Thomas was also arrested on that date.

Amt. allowed
in each
prosecution
No. on
Calendar
Name of Prisoner Age Occupn. Condition
Read, Write,
Imp.
Indictment Sentence
£21..12s..2d 8 Francis Thomas 35 Collier R.W.Imp. Felony
Wording as above
Six years penal
servitude.
1858 Millbank Prison.
TNA Ref:  PCOM/2/40 which is part of HO.10.
No. 7127.  Francis Thomas.  35 years.  Collier.  Married 2 children.  17 November 1858.
6th. April 1858. Stafford Sessions. Counting Housebreaking and Larceny after previous conviction for felony - 6 years penal servitude. Received 17 May 1858 from Stafford Prison. 10.7.58, 18.9.58. 18.10.58 and 7.12.58 Stafford. D.17.11.58.
Previous Convictions:  Once of manslaughter, thrice of felony and 4 times summarily.    Behaviour - Good.
Previous at Stafford 1 - 21 and under heading Total of separate confinement it records 1 - 16.
Next of kin:  Rachel Thomas, Heaths Passage, Longton.  Religion. Church of England.
Heading?? is recorded 6 April 1859.
10 January 1859 to Portland Prison.  First Class.

The Staffordshire Advertiser, dated Saturday, April 10th. 1858.
Robbery of a £50 Bank of England note at Longton.
Page 7, 1st.para.LHS of page.
Francis Thomas - William Henry Brown.
Copy required.
also, page 4, 4th. column. Copy required.
The trials of prisoners of whom there were 28 commenced on Wednesday and terminated the following day with the exception of a case of riot and assault at Lichfield, a robbery of notes from a counting house at Longton and stealing - receiving a quantity of iron tram rails at Tipton.

1859 Portland Prison.  TNA Ref: PCOM/2/369.
The pages in this document are set out under5 headings.
Column One.  8761.  Francis Thomas. Collier. Aged 35. Married 2 children. Read Write Imp. Progress at school - Fair. Religion - Church of England. Wife - Rachel Thomas Heaths Passage, Longton.
Column Two.  Received 10th. January 1959 from Millbank arrived First Class.
Date of conviction:  6 April 1858 Stafford Sessions - Breaking and Entering a Counting house and larceny therein after previous conviction for felony - 6 years penal servitude.
Column Three.  Previous Convictions:  Once convicted of manslaughter, twice convicted of felony four times summary convicted of felony - 6 years penal servitude.
Column Four. Periods of detention and conduct in other prisons.  Remarks as to character.
Stafford from 6th. April 58 to 17 May 58 = 1 month 12 days.
Millbank from 17 May 58 to 10 January 59 = 7 months 24 days Good.
Portland from 10 January 59 to 6 October 62 = 3 years 8 months 26 days - Exemplary.
Column Six.  1859.  49 First Class.  47 V.G.  2 G.    1860.  47 First Class.  47 V.G.
1861.  52 First Class.  52 V.G.    1862.  40 First Class.  40 V.G.
Discharged on Licence 6 October 1862.
Yearly Totals.  1859 - £3..0s..9d.  1860 - £2..19s..9d.  1861 - £4..2s..4d.  1862 - £3..12s.  Grand Total - £13..17s..10d.

TNA Ref:  PCOM/ 2/ 360.  Portland Prison.
Monday, 6th. October 1862.  Francis Thomas.  No.8761.  Discharged with Licence.

1859 8 October.  Staffordshire
Samuel Thomas, number 2589 was enrolled as a volunteer in the 3rd. Staffordshire regiment of Militia but on the 26 September 1860 was released from his militia engagement, on his payment of eighteen shillings and sixpence for the purpose of enlisting in the 22 Regiment of Foot.
1860 26 September.  Staffordshire
Samuel Thomas was released from his militia engagement, on his payment of eighteen shillings and sixpence for the purpose of enlisting in the 22 Regiment of Foot.

At 11. 30 a.m. on the 26 September 1860, at Newcastle under Lyne, he enlisted as a recruit in the 1st. Battalion 22 (Cheshire) Regiment of Foot for a term of ten years and duly received the £2 (Two Pounds) bounty.  He was allocated army number 1133, which was subsequently changed to 2000.

At the time of his enlistment, he stated he was born in the parish of Stoke on Trent, near the town of Longton in the county of Stafford and was a potter by trade, aged 18 years, five feet four and a half inches tall, fresh complexion with brown hair and brown eyes.  His chest measurement was 33 inches and he had good muscular development.

On the 28 September 1860, he was medically examined at Liverpool and was considered to be fit by the surgeon who examined him.

From the 27 September 1860 to 16 December 1864, a period of 4 years and 81 days he was posted to “Home”.  At present I do not know where he was actually stationed but most certainly between the 2 and 12 February 1862, he was at Parkhurst, Isle of Wight, because he was sick for these eleven days.  He was stated to be 19 years old at this time.

Hence Samuel Thomas was in the Army and may not have attended his mothers funeral, though I feel confident he may well have done so.  Afterall, he was posted “At home”!

In 1860, the regiment was ordered to Malta.

1861 7 April. (Sunday)  Newport .  Isle of Wight. Hampshire.
Ref: RG 9.  Piece 655.  Folio 156.  Page 12.
Regn. District Isle of Wight.  Sub-District Carisbrooke.  Ecclesiatical parish St. Johns.
The census reveals Samuel Thomas was unmarried, aged 18 years, a Private Soldier, born Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire.  His name appears with many other soldiers under a heading 1/22nd. Depot.  It was an Army Barracks and at the start of the section it stated there were 31 Officers, 50 Sergeants, 46 Corporals, 19 Drummers, 703 Privates and 67 Civilians.
1861 13 April.  Longton St. James.  Staffordshire
The census (Ref.RG9  Piece 1942  Folio 10  page 16) reveals Rachel Thomas and her daughter Elizabeth Thomas.  Her son Samuel Thomas was in the army.  Her husband Francis Thomas was not at home on census night.  He was in prison!
Name of Street
Road, no.of house
Name & Surname
at 13 April 1861
Relation
to Head
Condition Age M/F Occupation Where Born
6, Barker Street Rachel Thomas Head Marr. 37 F Potter Wheelturner Longton, Staffs.
6, Barker Street Elizabeth Thomas Dau. Unmarr. 10 F Potter handler Longton, Staffs.
1861 7 April.  Portland Convict Prison,   Dorsetshire.
The census reveals TF, Convict, Married, aged 38 years, Collier born Foley, Staffordshire.
This is Francis Thomas shown by his initials in reverse order.
Ref: Portland Convict Prison.  Book 1.  Governor William Clay.  24 Officers and 1025 Inmates (Convicts).
Ref: RG9.  Piece 1351.  Folio 159.  Page 10.  GSU Roll 542799.  Regn.District Weymouth, Dorset.  Sub-District 3 Isle of Portland.
1861 14 November.  Barker Street. Longton.  Staffordshire
Rachel Thomas died at Barker Street.  We conject her death was at her home, number 6.  Her death was registered on the 16 November 1861 by Fanny Cartlidge of East Side Passage, Longton.  She made her mark and told the Registrar S.P.Goddard that she had been present at the death.  The death certificate records the age of the deceased as 39 years and the cause of death was stated to be Hepatic Disease Certified.  Under the column headed occupation it records "Wife of Francis Thomas Collier".

Fanny Cartlidge formerly Mellor was the twin sister of Rachel Thomas formerly Mellor.

1861 13 April.  Longton .  Staffordshire
Ref: RG 9.  Piece 1942.  Folio 62.  Page 1.
Regn. District Stoke on Trent.  Sub-District 5 Longton.  Ecclesiatical parish St. James.
The census reveals James Thomas was aged 42 years, a Licensed Victualler at the Sheridan Arms, Chancery Lane, Longton. Stoke on Trent.  James Thomas was the brother of Francis Thomas and hence uncle of Samuel Thomas.

The Trade Directory, Harrison and Harrod Directory and Gazette 1861, under the heading 'Public Houses' records James Thomas, Sheridan Arms, Chancery Lane, Longton.

Name of Street
Road, no.of house
Name & Surname
at 13 April 1861
Relation
to Head
Condition Age M/F Occupation Where Born
Sheridan Arms
6, Chancery Lane
James Thomas Head Marr. 42 M Licensed
Victualler
Newport,
Shropshire
Chancery Lane Sarah Thomas Wife Marr. 29 F -- Newport,Shropshire
Chancery Lane Joseph Thomas Son Unmarr. 5 M -- Stoke on Trent, Staffs.
Chancery Lane Elizabeth Thomas Sister Unmarr. 33 F Dressmaker Stoke on Trent. Staffs.
Chancery Lane Catherine Benny Servant Unmarr. 22 F House servant Stafford, Staffs.
1863 27 November.  1st. Battalion 22 (Cheshire) Regiment of Foot
Samuel Thomas went absent without leave (AWOL) for eleven days.  He was arrested, tried and imprisoned for twenty eight days from 9 December 1863 to 5 January 1864.  Thus he spent Christmas 1863 in custody.  He was released on the 6 January 1864.

Clearly he redeemed himself, because on the 16 August 1866, he was awarded “good conduct pay”, which was worth two pence per week! (2d. old pence).

1864 17 December.  1st. Battalion 22 (Cheshire) Regiment of Foot
Samuel went to Malta on the H.M.S. Floriana , where he remained until the 28 May 1869, a period of 3 years and 42 days.  During this period, on the 1 March 1867, he was promoted to Corporal.

The conditions in Malta were dreadful, a cholera epidemic struck the island and the regiment at that time.  It appears to have been at it’s worst during 1865.  It appears that most of the deaths were amongst the private soldiers and where these were married, most of the family also died.

I have no records of what the regiment were actually doing in Malta at this time and they may have been mostly involved in ceremonial duties.

1864 29 December.  Longton, Staffordshire.
Francis Thomas committed two criminal offences on this date.  At Longton, he stole a clothes line the property of Thos. Lear and secondly he stole a cloth towel the property of Samuel Bradbury.  On the 30 December 1864 a warrant was issued in respect of both offences and he was arrested the same day.  He was committed to the Quarter Sessions by J.E.Davies, Esq.
1865 2 January.  Staffordshire Quarter Sessions
He appeared at the Staffordshire Quarter Sessions on 2 January 1865, indicted with the two felonies.  He pleaded 'Guilty' to both offences, after a previous conviction for felony.  On the first indictment he was sentenced to 10 years penal servitude and was not sentenced on the second indictment.

We are certain this is our Francis Thomas although his age was stated to be 24 whereas he was in fact 42 years of age.

Amt. expenses
in each
prosecution
No. on
Calendar
Name of Prisoner Age Occupn. Condition
Read, Write,
Imp.
Indictment Sentence
£4..9s..6d
& £4..15s..4d
57 Francis Thomas 24 Miner R.W.Imp. Felony
Wording as above
Ten years penal
servitude.
The Staffordshire Advertiser dated Saturday, January 7th. 1865, page 6, column 7 records:
Francis Thomas, miner, was convicted on his own confession of stealing a clothes line, the property of Thomas Lear, and a towel the property of Samuel Bradbury at Longton on the 29 December (1864).  The Assistant Chairman said the prisoners career had been so bad that the public were entitled to be relieved of his presence for a considerable time to come.  The earliest intelligence they had of him was that in 1843, he was tried for manslaughter and since then he had several times been convicted of larceny and other offences, for one of which he was sentenced to seven years transportation.  He had also been sentenced to six years penal servitude.  For the present offences he must be kept in penal servitude for ten years.
1866. 7 April.  Portland Prison, Dorset
Francis Thomas Transportation to Swan River Colony, Western Australia.
Convict 9012              Sentence Province Stafford
Ships name Belgravia     Length Sentence 10 years
Ships arrival date 4 July 1866     Crime Larceny
Arrived at Fremantle     Prev.cons. Prev.cons
Birth date 1823     Ticket to leave 19 May 1870
Marital status Wid. 3chn.     Cert. of Freedom date 31 Dec. 1874
Occupation Collier     Cert. of Freedom place Newcastle
Literacy Lit.     Date to U.K. 14 Jan. 1875
Religion Prot.     Known areas Wellington, Champion Bay, Perth
Date of Offence 2 Jan. 1865     Comments CR1872.  Labourer  Shepherd
Miner  Well sinking  general servant
Documentation from records taken on the Belgravia ship, we have a physical description of Francis Thomas as follows:
Francis Thomas, Reg.no. 9012, Collier, Widower, 3 children, height 5ft.5.5inches, brown hair, hazel eyes, round face, fresh comp., stout build, widower, scar on left wrist.  CR1872.

On this document, mention is made of Newcastle (Western Australia - my words).  This was correct but in 1910, this place named Newcastle was name changed to Toodyay to avoid confusion with the place named Newcastle in N.S.W.  Toodyay is about 100 kms. from Fremantle.

Belgravia
This 889 ton ship was built at Sunderland in 1862.  It was employed as a convict transport for Western Australia and left Portland, England on April 7, 1866 bound for the Swan River Colony.  She carried the thirty fourth of 37 shipments of male convicts destined for Western Australia.  The voyage took 88 days and the Belgravia arrived in Fremantle on July 4, 1866 with 106 passengers and 275 convicts [Erickson].  John E.W. Jackson was the captain of the vessel.

1866 23 March.  Malta
From Malta the 1st. Battalion and Samuel Thomas went to Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada.  This is how Corporal Samuel Thomas would have experienced the journey.

At 3 p.m. on the 23 March 1866, the battalion in complete marching order was inspected on Margarita Hill by Major-General W. Ridley commanding the troops in Malta, when His Excellency in a short address highly complimented the men on the exemplary conduct of the Corps during it’s 5years 10months stay at Malta, the high state of efficiency which it always maintained and concluded by saying their departure was deeply regretted by himself and the citizens of Malta and wished the entire regiment a prosperous voyage to New Brunswick, Canada.

The Regiment, 812 strong including 61 wives and 87 children, embarked on board H.M.S. Simoon at the victualling yard at 3. 30 p.m. and sailed at 6 p.m. the following morning.

The vessel was met at the mouth of the Grand Harbour by the band of the 84th. Regiment, the band playing “Auld Lang Syne” and the officers and others cheering vociferously which compliment was responded to by the band of the Twenty Second playing on the poop, the men cheering in return.

The sadness of the last few months in Malta must have been uppermost in the minds of all on board, especially as the strains of Auld Lang Syne floated across to them over the waters of the Grand Harbour.  There is nothing in the records of those bereaved families of the regiment who must have sailed sadly for England shortly afterwards.

Conditions on the Simoon were very bad.  Below decks all was confusion and stench.  The vessel was overcrowded.  Each married family - or small group laid out a private pitch on deck as soon as they could reach their haven after the early morning parades.  When night time came they were reluctant to obey the orderly sergeants’ instructions to repair below decks, in spite of the cold weather.

H.M.S. Simoon arrived at St. John New Brunswick on the 17 April 1866.  At 3 p.m. that day the women, children and heavy baggage was landed.  The battalion disembarking proceeded to Fredericton via India Town at two day intervals.  I suspect Samuel Thomas was under the command of Colonel Harding CB and they were last to move on the 28 April.

It serves no useful purpose herein to relate the reasons for their presence in Fredericton but briefly it was to prevent British soldiers deserting to the Americans who were short of NCO’s, the American Civil War had just ended, and they were trying to get the British soldiers to desert for two hundred dollars and ten gallons of rum, to join them as instructors.

Secondly, there were many Irishmen amongst the thousands of restless men thrown up in America after the Civil War ended.  These Irishmen were resentful towards the English for her alleged oppressive land laws and general harsh measures in Ireland.  They formed themselves into loosely organised groups known as the Fenians with the idea of invading Canada and replacing the Union Jack with the Stars and Stripes.  For almost two years these groups kept the New Brunswick border in a state of agitation.

Fredericton was described as “..... On the river and all by the river side it is lovely.  Very fine willows grow on the bank and the fireflies float about them like falling stars.  It is all in lovely country, the streets are planted with trees and have no names, there are few lamps.  Most of them are like shady lanes with pretty wooden houses.

On suspects life was still uncomfortable for the ordinary soldiers.  Often they were cold, hungry, unwashed and cooking often presented a problem, the stoves were too few, inadequate or too distant from the mess, whilst the ablution and bathrooms were often too cold.

1867 January/February.  Fredericton
Samuel had another period of sick leave between the 22 January and 21 February 1867, a period of 31 days.  He was treated for abscesses by “opened poultice”.  He was now 24 and had 6 years army service.
1867 14 May.  Fredericton. New Brunswick, Canada
Samuel Thomas married Mary E. Kelly.  He stated he was a bachelor of full age and a Corporal in the Ist. Battalion 22nd. Foot, whilst his bride gave her name as Mary and stated she was a spinster aged 20 years.  Both were residing in Fredericton.  The marriage was by Licence.  The witnesses were Mary O’ Leary and Colour Sergeant A. Hartshorn of the same battalion as Samuel.  Unfortunately, the names of neither father is recorded.  (The G.R.O. records (reference ????)  The marriage in the records 1860 to 1867 page number 791).

Clearly this was a ‘shot gun’ marriage because a few months later their first child Albert F. was born.  His birth date has not yet been established.

Hence, Samuel had been in Fredericton for only 13 months, had found and married his bride.

I believe Mary had a sister Susan Kelly who married in Fredericton 1868 - 69 page number 849 in records also a brother James Kelly who married 1860 - 67 page number 849 in the records.

Their first born child, a son Albert F. was born circa 1867 and their second, a daughter Alice was born circa 1868.

There is documentary evidence Samuel and Mary Thomas formerly Kelly had at least TEN children, the two eldest Albert F. (born 1867) and Alice Thomas (born 1868) being born in Fredericton, whilst Jessie was born in 1870 in Bantry, Ireland.  (G.R.O. Reference is volume 919, page 2 - 22 Cheshire regiment).

1868 6 November.  Fredericton
He finished his initial ten year term and re-engaged to complete 21 years service.  The date was 6 November 1868 and he retained the rank of Corporal. 
1869 27 May.  Fredericton
On the evening of the 27 May 1869, the battalion being under orders from the United Kingdom, assembled on parade in the front Barrack Square at Fredericton to receive an address from the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonality of the City.
Samuels’ time in Fredericton had no doubt been an enjoyable posting.  He finished his initial ten year term and re-engaged to complete 21 years service.  The date was 6 November 1868 and he retained the rank of Corporal.  He had married and was the father of two children when he left Canada.

And so the tour of duty in Fredericton drew to a close, the Fenian scare died down, the border between Canada and America became a peaceful boundary and the 1st. Battalion, the 22nd (Cheshire) regiment became the last English UK based unit to serve in Fredericton.

1869 8 June.  Queenstown (Ireland)
It is satisfying that for once the battalion had a happy and very pleasant sea voyage home, aboard the H.M.S. Serapis, arriving in Queenstown (Ireland) on the 8 June 1869.

Corporal Samuel Thomas as a member of Head Quarters (‘A’, ‘D’ and ‘G’ Companies) went to Cork.

His service record reads:  29 May 1869 - Home.  9 June 1869 - Cork.

There is little to record about this period of his service, the duties in Cork being routine garrison ones, the chief concern being recruiting more soldiers.  However, there was some rejoicing for Samuel's' family, another baby girl named Jessie.  As yet we do not know her birthday, but she was born at Bantry.

1870 England.
In 1870, as far as the army were concerned, there was initiated the Caldwell Reforms, which was basically concerned with the organisation of battalions and were really the culmination of a decade of improvements initiated by Wolsey, now Caldwell’s lieutenant.  These reforms included the abolition of the purchase of officers’ commissions and the short service enlistment, creating at last an army reserve. (p.25).

On the 19 May 1870, Francis Thomas was given his Ticket to Leave in Australia.

1871 3 April.  St. John's parish.  Longton. Staffordshire.
The census reveals James Mellor aged 76 years a Potters Packer living at 39 Park Hall Street, Longton near Stoke on Trent.  He was a widower.  Living with him was his son William Mellor aged 31 years, daughter in law Eliza Mellor and their child, Emily Elizabeth aged 2 years.  All were stated to have been born in Longton, Staffordshire.  We conject this is the grandfather and uncle of Samuel Thomas.

This census also reveals Elizabeth Mellor, aged 23 years, unmarried, a border employed as a Potter ??, born Longton living with the Brandreth family at 107, Wood (or Ward) Street, Longton in St. John's parish. (Ref. RG10/2874 p.26(2) & p.53 of 261).  I conject she was a friend and workmate of Elizabeth Brandreth, aged 23 years, daughter of the household.

This 1871 census also reveals Elizabeth TOMAS, aged 20 years, a General Domestic servant born Fenton, Staffs. residing at Heley Castle Farm, Knowle End, Staffs.  She is living wirh Joseph Beckett, his wife Mary and several other employees.  The farm is 180 acres.
This is Elizabeth Thomas, daughter of Francis Thomas and sister of Samuel Thomas.
Ref: RG10.  Piece 2835. Folio 53.  Page 9.  Regn. District Newcastle under Lyne. Sub-district Audley.

1871 22 May.  Queenstown, Ireland.
On the 22 May 1871, the battalion embarked at Queenstown on board H.M.S. Orantes for the Channel Islands.  I believe he was in Guernsey, though some soldiers were in Alderney.

This was the period of the development of the regimental concert, when everyone was encouraged to get up and ‘do a turn’.  Did Samuel do his bit and did he hand down this trait?  I wonder!

1872 29 July.  Aldershot.
The battalion was brought back to Aldershot on the 29 July 1872, where they were encamped on Rushmoor North, the women and children being sent to the Permanent Barracks for accommodation.  The battalion had detrained at Farnborough Station from Portsmouth and then marched to Aldershot, where they joined their families in the ‘Aldershot permanent barracks accommodation’.

He remained a Corporal until the 13 October 1872, when he was again promoted, this time to Sergeant Samuel Thomas.

1873 12 February.  Aldershot.
He was re-vaccinated on the 12 February 1873 by the regimental surgeon.

On the 13 August 1873, eight companies of the battalion took part in the ‘Aldershot Manoeuvres’ on Cannock Chase.  Samuel's' world had come full circle, the Potteries, Cannock Chase, he was on home territory.

The battalion left for Liverpool and Chester in September 1873, Samuel going to Chester on the 13 September 1873.  At Chester, he was again on sick leave, this time for 8 days between the 7 and 14 December 1873 with Erysipelas, brought on by cold and exposure.  He received local treatment.  He was now aged 30 and had 13 years army service.

1874 31 December.  Newcastle, Australia.
Francis Thomas was given his Certificate of Freedom and 14 days later he started his journey back to England.
1874 22 May.  Liverpool.
Shortly afterwards, one company had to move out of Chester to Liverpool, ‘due to overcrowding caused by district recruits joining’.  Samuel moved to Liverpool on the 22 May 1874.  Recruits continued to pour in and finally on the 3 July 1874, when he was moved to Manchester and to the grim Salford Barracks.

On the 13 November 1874, he was deprived of Colors, hence no longer a Colour Sergeant.

1875 14 January.  Newcastle, Australia.
Francis Thomas having completed his sentence, leaves Australia and returns to England,
1877 27 November.  Longton, Staffordshire.
Francis Thomas died at Heaths Passage, Longton.  His wife Kate Thomas registered the death on the 30 November 1877.  She told the Registrar G.E.Harmer (?) that she was the widow of the deceased and had been present at his death.  She stated that Francis Thomas was aged 55 years, a Carter by occupation and that the cause of death was Apoplexy, certified by R. Thorburn. M.B.C.M.

The fact that Francis Thomas had married since his return to England is news and it appears as if he remarried a very short time before his death.  His second marriage has not yet been traced.  Of course she could have lied.  Perhaps they were not married and instead were cohabiting.

1878 3 December.  Buttevant, County of Cork, Ireland.
Walter Thomas the son of Samuel Thomas and his wife Mary Thomas formerly Kelly was born.  Father Samuel Thomas was stated to be a Sergeant in the 22 Foot Regiment.Samuel Thomas The birth was registered on the 7 February 1879.  The Registrar may have made an error initially recording the birth year as 1879!
1875 to 1889 Fleetwood, Lancs. and Cork, Ireand.
He was on the move again on the 9 July 1875, when the battalion moved to Fleetwood, but this time the journey was by train.  At Fleetwood he had more sickness.  This time it was seven days sickness with tonsillitis, brought on by cold, from the 24 April to 1 May 1876.  His treatment was gargles!  He was now 30 years old and had 13 years service.

On the 17 October 1876, he was again appointed Colour Sergeant, but on the 14 September 1877 was deprived of the Colors.

For nearly two years there was a a very quiet period, punctuated only by an annual inspection before on the 21 March 1877, embarking on the troopship Assistance for Cork taking with them the ‘women, children and baggage’.  Samuel arrived in Cork on the 24 March 1877, where he remained until the 6 December 1877 when he went to Buttevant.

He was transferred to the 18th. Brigade Depot on the 26 March 1879 and five days later, on the 31 March 1879, he was posted to Chester and on the 23 September that year was again appointed Colour Sergeant.

From Chester, it was to Newry, Ireland on the 13 August 1880.

On dates unknown between 1 April and 30 September 1880, he spent two days in civil confinement for civil offences, but nothing further is yet known about these offences.

On the 6 April 1881, his discharge was cancelled and he was transferred to the Highland Light Infantry Territorial Regiment and posted to the permanent staff of the 5th. Lanark Rifle Volunteers, Glasgow under Vol. Regulations 1878 and the Authority of the District Office, Belfast.

He reverted to Sergeant on the 23 September 1879 until 11 November 1881.  He was entitled to good conduct pay of five pence (5d. old money) on the 5 November 1881.  There was more good conduct pay on the 25 October 1886, this time it was sixpence (6d. old money).

Another promotion followed on the 30 September 1882, when he was promoted Colour Sergeant.  Finally, on the 21 August 1885, he was promoted Acting Sergeant Major and retired on the 11 June 1889, at Hamilton, Scotland, where his Captain (Acting Adjutant) Maguire described Samuel Thomas as “temperate habits, very good conduct”.

1889 11 June  Hamilton, Scotland.
Samuel Thomas finally retired from the army, having served 28 years and 258 days, with 28 years 219 days counting for pension and good conduct pay.
An image of the Viaduct Inn located at 108 Viaduct Street, Ardwick, Manchester.
1890 Ardwick, Manchester.
He was the licensee (beerhouse keeper) of the Viaduct Inn located at 108, Viaduct Street, Ardwick. Manchester and lived there with his wife and children..

He was there in 1891, 1892, 1893 and 1894, but he was not there in 1895.  This information has been gleaned from Kelly's trade directories, but we must remember these trade directories are organised one year beforehand!

1891 Census, Manchester.
The 1891 Census reveals he is living with his wife and children at 108, Viaduct Street, Beswick, Manchester.
Ref: Civil parish of Beswick.  Ecclesiastical Parish of St. Mary's.  Municipal Borough of Manchester.
RG12.  Piece 3260.  Folio 41.  page 22.
Name Status M or S Age Occupn. Where born Employment
Samuel Thomas Head M 47 Publican Longton, Staffs. Employer
Mary E. Thomas Wife M 43 - Canada Employee
Albert F. Thomas Son S 23 Misc. Photo Artist Canada Employee
Alice Thomas Dau. S 23 Forewoman Cotton Manufac. Canada Employee
Jessie Thomas Dau S 20 Machinist Ireland Employee
Annie Thomas Dau. S 17 Machinist Chester, Cheshire Employee
Arthur Thomas Son S 15 Apprentice Iron Turner Manchester, Lancs. Employee
Lucy Thomas Dau. S 14 Scholar Fleetwood, Lancs. -
Walter Thomas Son S 12 Scholar Ireland -
Charlie Thomas Son S 10 Scholar Ireland -
Minnie Thomas Dau. S 8 Scholar Scotland -
Ada Thomas Dau. S 2 - Scotland -

From the Regimental Records of Samuel Thomas's Regiment, we discover the following:
Name Where born Year Regt. Vol. Page
Albert F. Thomas Frederickton, New Brunswick 1867 22 919 2
Alice Thomas Frederickton, New Brunswick 1868 22 919 2
Jessie Thomas Bantry 1870 22 919 2
There is no mention of either Walter Thomas, Charlie Thomas, Minnie Thomas and Ada Thomas on these above Regimental Records.
1891 28 July. St. Ann's Catholic Church, Manchester.
Albert Francis Thomas, aged 24 years, a bachelor and an artist, living at 108 Viaduct Street, Beswick married Elzabeth Wills, aged 23 years, a spinster employed as a Mantle Fitter and also living at 108 Viaduct Street, Beswick.  This address was the Viaduct Inn.   The grooms father was Samuel Thomas, a Publican, whilst the brides father was named as Edward Distin Wills, a Commercial Traveller.  The witnesses were E. M. Wills and A. Thomas.  The priest was M. Buckley and the Registrar was G.M.Macdonald.
1895 Tipping Street, Ardwick, Manchester
In 1895, Samuel Thomas was residing at 104, Tipping Street, Ardwick, Manchester and he was described as a Rate Collector.
Ref:  Slater's Manchester and Salford Directory 1895.  page 394

The positive evidence that this is the correct Samuel Thomas is the fact his daughter Lucy Thomas, who was aged 22 years in 1899 when she was getting married.  (Entry number 209. Book M.273/1/3 - Manchester Central Library Local Studies).

The 1891 Census revealed Lucy Thomas, aged 14 years, bapt. Fleetwood, Lancs. living at the Viaduct Inn with her parents, brothers and sisters.

An image of Samuel Thomas 1842 to 1915. Image courtesy of Mrs Jill Cox.

1899 15 May  104 Tipping Street, Ardwick. Manchester
Mary Thomas aged 51 years, wife of Samuel Thomas, a Rent Collector died at this address on the said date.  The cause of death being Acute Peritonitis, certified by J.M.Smith L.S.A.  The death was registered the same day by her daughter Jessie Lipton of 98 Napier Street, Gorton who stated she was present at the death.  The registrar was A. Hallsworth (Deputy registrar).

At 3 p.m. Thursday, 18 May 1899, Mary Thomas was buried at the Southern Cemetery, Barlow Moor Road, Chorlton, Manchester in grave number 638, in section D - the Church of England.  The burial register records her age as 53 years, married and of 104 Tipping Street, Ardwick, Manchester.  It was private burial. The signature of the Minister is that of A.W.Headeach.

An copy image of original funeral invoice for Mary Thomas, wife of Samuel Thomas.  Image courtesy of Mrs Jill Cox.

1888 The Trade Directories reveal 104, Tipping Street, Ardwick was stated to be a Catholic Charity.

Family legend states Samuel Thomas remarried a school teacher, years younger than himself.  They lived in a big house facing Stamford Park, Ashton Under Lyne.

1899 7 November  Manchester
Samuel Thomas is described as an estate agent on his son Walter Thomas's marriage certificate.  I suspect Walter had left home and was living with his bride Martha Metcalfe and her parents at 2, Helmet Street, Ardwick, Manchester.
1901 Census, Ashton under Lyne, Lancashire.
Ref: RG13.  Piece 3783.  Folio 66.  page 8. schedule 48.  Ecclesiastical Parish of St. Michaels and All Angels. 
The 1901 Census reveals Samuel Thomas is living with his three youngest children at 107, Mossley Road, Ashton under Lyne.
Name Status M or S M or F Age Occupn. Worker Where born
Samuel Thomas Head Widower M 58 Rent Collector Worker Longton, Staffs.
Charles Thomas Son S M 20 Photo Engraver ditto Ireland, UK.
Minnie Thomas Dau. S F 18 - - Scotland
Ada Thomas Dau. S F 12 - - Scotland
1901 Census, Manchester, Lancashire.
Ref: RG13. Piece 3677. Folio 142. page 29. Schedule 213. Ref:   Ecclesiastical Parish of Ardwick St. Silas. 
The 1901 Census reveals Walter Thomas is living with his wife at 23, Albany Street, Ardwick.
Walter Thomas being the son of Samuel Thomas.  Also, Walter born Fleetwood not Ireland as at 1891 census.
Albany Street was off Hillkirk Street near to Viaduct Street but the area has long since been demolished. (1995)
Name Status M or S M or F Age Occupn. Worker Where born
Walter Thomas Head Married M 22 Watchmaker Journeyman Worker Fleetwood, Lancs.
Martha Thomas Wife Married F 21 Shirt Machinist Worker Manchester, Lancs.
1901 Census, Manchester, Lancashire.
Ref: RG13. Piece 3688. Folio 124. page 39. Schedule 258. Ref:   Ecclesiastical Parish of Gorton All Saints. 
Civil parish of Gorton (part of) & Ecclesiastical Parish of Gorton St. James (part of). 
The 1901 Census reveals Arthur Thomas is living with his sister Jessie Tipton at 98 Napier Street, Gorton, Manchester.
Arthur Thomas and Jessie Tipton formerly Thomas being the son and daughter of Samuel Thomas and his wife Mary Thomas.
Napier Street was off Gorton Lane, Manchester.  The area has long since been demolished and redeveloped. (1999)
Name Status M or S M or F Age Occupn. Worker Where born
Isaac Tipton Head Married M 33 Engine Maker Turner
Fitter
Worker Manchester, Lancs.
Jessie Tipton Wife Married F 30 - Worker Ireland, UK
Emily Tipton Dau. S F 7 - - Manchester, Lancs.
Arthur Thomas Brother in law Single M 25 Engine Maker Turner
Fitter
Worker Manchester, Lancs.
1901 Census, Islington, London.
Ref: RG13. Piece 174. Folio 75. page 28. Schedule 177. Ref:   Ecclesiastical Parish of Gorton All Saints. 
Civil parish of Islington & Ecclesiastical Parish of Gorton St. Clement.c
The 1901 Census reveals Albert F. Thomas was lodging at 14, Arundell Square, Islington.
Albert F. Thomas being the son of Samuel Thomas and his wife Mary Thomas.
Name Status M or S M or F Age Occupn. Worker Where born
Albert F. Thomas Boarder Married M 33 Commercial Traveller Worker Canada
As at January 2008, the whereabouts, in 1901, of Alice Thomas, Annie Thomas and Lucy Thomas, the daughters of Samuel Thomas are not known.  They have married and their married names are not known.
1901 25 September  Ashton under Lyne, Lancashire
Samuel Thomas, a widower aged 55 years married Lucy Mellor a 20 year old spinster at Ashton under Lyne Register Office.  Both were stated to be residing at 105, Mossley road, Ashton under Lyne and this house may well have faced a park.  Samuel told the registrar he was an accountants clerk and his deceased father was a coal merchant named Francis Thomas.  Lucy's father was named William Mellor, a journeyman Hollow-ware potter.  The marriage, which was by licence was witnessed by William Simon and James Mather.

Consequently, Samuel Thomas, his three children and new wife had moved from 107 Mossley Road to the next door premises at 105, which was a shop and shown on the 1901 census as a grocers.

This marriage is recorded in St. Catherine's indexes as follows :
Ashton  1901  third quarter  Vol. 8d.  page 1041.

The Ashton Herald newspaper dated the 28 September 1901, page 8, briefly records Thomas - Mellor.  On the 25th. inst. at the Register Office, Ashton, Samuel Thomas to Lucy Mellor, both of Ashton under Lyne.

A similar entry appeared in the Ashton under Lyne Reporter.

1903 Ashton under Lyne  Lancashire
Samuel Thomas and his wife Lucy, celebrate the birth of their son Samuel Thomas.   Father Samuel Thomas would be aged 60 years.
1905 Kelly's Trade Directory  Lancashire
Samuel Thomas is recorded as being a shopkeeper and tobacconist at 105, Mossley Road, Ashton under Lyne.
1905-6 Electoral Rolls, St. Michaels Polling District no. 1.  Ashton under Lyne
Prog. no. Name Place of abode Nature of Qual. Description of Qual. property
3523 Samuel Thomas 105 Mossley Road House successive 105 Mossley Road, A u L
1908 Ashton under Lyne  Lancashire
Samuel Thomas and his wife Lucy, celebrate the birth of another son, whom they name Sydney Thomas.  Father Samuel Thomas would be aged 65 years.

An image of Dukinfield rugby team, 1936/37, with two adult sons of the late Samuel Thomas and his wife Mary thereon. Claude is middle row, second from left, whilst his brother Sydney Thomas is fourth from left, holding the ball.  Image courtesy of Mrs Jill Cox.

1910-11 Electoral Rolls, Market Polling District no. 2.  Ashton under Lyne
Prog. no. Name Place of abode Nature of Qual. Description of Qual. property
1341 Samuel Thomas 44 Russell Street House 44 Russell Street
1911 Ashton under Lyne  Lancashire
The census reveals Samuel Thomas, his wife Lucy and two children Samuel and Sydney Thomas reside at 44 Russell Street, Ashhton under Lyne, a four bedroom dwelling .  Samuel Thomas signs the declaration, with a nice signature.   The entry is number 372 on the schedule.
Name Status M or S Time
married
M or
F
Age Occupn. Worker Where born
Samuel Thomas Head Married 9 yrs. M 68 Rent Collector
for an Estate Agent
Worker Longton, Staffs.
Lucy Thomas Wife Married 9 yrs. F 30 - - Longton, Staffs.
Samuel Thomas Son Single - M 8 School - Ashton under Lyne.
Sydney Thomas Son Single - M 3 School - Ashton under Lyne
1914-15 Electoral Rolls, St. Michaels Polling District no. 1.  Ashton under Lyne
Prog. no. Name Place of abode Nature of Qual. Description of Qual. property
3430 Samuel Thomas 2 Grey Street House successive 2 Grey Street / 44 Russell Street
1915 Jan./ Feb. / March.  Islington, London
Albert F. Thomas born 1867/8 in Fredericton, Canada, son of Samuel Thomas died.  His death certificate will be sought (21 August 2009) and this entry updated.
1915 27 December  Ashton under Lyne, Lancashire
Samuel Thomas died at his home, 2, Grey Street, Ashton Under Lyne and his widow Lucy Thomas was present at his death.  His death certificate states he was aged 72 years and a rent collector.
The cause of death was stated to be (1). Cardiac muscle failure and (2). Oedema.

The latter Samuel Thomas did not leave a will, at least I cannot find any record of the same.

There is an entry in 'The (Ashton) Herald, dated 1 January 1916 on page 8 under the heading Births, Deaths and Marriages : Thomas on the 27th. ult. at 2, Grey Street, Ashton under Lyne, Samuel Thomas in his 73rd. Year.

1915 30 December  Southern Cemetery, Chorlton, Manchester.
Samuel Thomas was buried in the same grave as his first wife Mary Thomas formerly Kelly.
The grave, number 638, is located in section D, the Church of England section of the cemetery.  There are four burials in this grave, his wife Mary Thomas being number 1, the first person to be buried and Samuel Thomas is number 4, the last person.  Two bodies that of Frederick Wainwright aged either 3 or 5 months (2) and Samuel Park McLeish (3) are in this grave, but it is not known if they were related to the Thomas couple.

An image of headstone erected in Southern Cemetery, Manchester for Samuel Thomas and his wife Mary Thomas

There is a headstone erected but it is now worn and difficult to read.  However, it reads: In loving memory of Mary Elizabeth beloved wife of Samuel Thomas who died 15 May 1899 aged 53 years.  Also Frederick Wainwright, beloved son of Samuel Joseph and Ann Wainwright died Nov. 6th. 1900, aged 3 (or 5 months).  Also the above Samuel Thomas died Dec. 27th. 1915 aged 72 years.

The Burial Register also records Samuel Thomas as being aged 72 years, a private burial and an occupation of "Out of Business".  The address is confirmed as 2, Grey Street, Ashton Under Lyne.

The address 2 Grey Street, Ashton under Lyne is still standing (2001).  For many years it has been a Yates's Wine Lodge.  It is a large house and is about fifty yards from the parish church.

An copy image of original funeral invoice for Samuel Thomas. Note the wording thereon. Image courtesy of Mrs Jill Cox.

His second wife Lucy Thomas never remarried and died, aged 80 years, on the 23 March 1961 in a nursing home named Moss Bank located at 34, Oak Road, Withington, Manchester.  The cause of her death was certified as being (1a) Cerebal thrombosis (b)Artero schlerosis and (c) Senility.  Her death was certified by A.G.Walker, M.D. and registered on the 24 March 1961 by her son S. Thomas of 21, Sunnyside Grove, Ashton under Lyne who stated he was present at his mothers death.  Her place of burial has not yet been discovered.  The nursing home was demolished and a two storey block of flats built in its place and is still numbered 34.
Oak Road is located directly opposite the site of The Christie Cancer Hospital..

Samuel Thomas 1842 - 1915


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Created 3 July 2004
Last updated: 11 September 2012.